Friday, November 29, 2019
School Prayer Question Contrary to the claims, students have the Constitutional right to pray in school, either individually or in informal groups so long as the prayer is not organized by the school. But if the students only knew what they were really doing by praying in school. II. First of all they are going against the Bible. As to quote, Matthew 6:5-6: "And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners. But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray..." So as you can see those who pray in places such as the cafeteria, middle of the hall or things of that nature is actually going against the bible. Now I am not saying that a person should not pray in schools, but they should do it just as the Bible says in a personal place. If a student can't find a personal place, and have an undesirable need to pray, they need to not make a big deal out of it. Praying as put in the Bible is a personal experience between that person and God. Not an event to be proclaimed up and down the hallway. III. Another problem there is with praying in schools is the fact that there are some students who don't believe in God. The purpose of a democracy is to have the majority decide but yet always respect the rights of the minority. Some administrators, teachers, parents, and most importantly, kids, just feel uncomfortable when it comes to religion. Several factors could be attributed to this problem, from too many religions and religious theories to religious pressure to lack thereof. But whatever the reason some people feel offended by seeing these students pray. They think that their rights are being infringed upon. Well in example, if a shirt some student is wearing offends a person they tell someone about being offended. Someone else is also offended and so they tell someone. These 2 people influenced by what they have heard tell more people. This chain reaction continues until that kind of shirt is not allowed in schools, in example Marilynn Manson shirts. The minority there is the students wanting to wear the shirts; the majority is the people offended by it. The majority spoke and the minority is told to fallow. But now it is the minority being offended no one cares to do anything about it. IV. The last problem I have are the advocates of school prayer say that without it there is moral decline, blaming the absence of school prayer for everything from low SAT scores to teenage pregnancy. But it just won't work. In fact, legislated school prayer would make things worse. For a school to require students to recite, for example, a Christian prayer would give Christianity a special status, implying that other religions are somehow inferior. One religion would be pitted against another, conflicts would arise, and intolerance would grow. The only palatable compromise in a directed public school prayer would be a watered-down prayer that would be meaningless to the deeply religious and an infringement on those who follow no religion. Some of our senators are trying to pass an amendment in have school prayer required. But the First Amendment begins "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..." If we were to have this school wide required prayer we would be in essance establishing a religion. And even though what they are trying to pass is a constitutional amendment it goes against on of the main things our forefathers came here for. The First Amendment is one of the finest laws man has ever written. For over two hundred years, it continues to mean exactly what it was originally intended to mean: Religion and other fundamental rights should remain beyond the reach of majorities and governments, and certainly not subjected to the political whims of Congress. Bibliography "FAQ." Prayer in Schools. http://www.atheists.org/schoolhouse/faqs.prayer.html. Downloaded December 16, 1999 "Maryland teen walks out of Graduation over Prayer." Prayer in schools. http://www.freedomforum.org/religion/1999/5/28mdgradprayer.asp Downloaded December 16, 1999 "Smudge Report." Bible verse. http://www.smudgereport.com/longstories/prayer.html Downloaded December 16, 1999 "Bible Belivers should oppose school prayer." School Prayer. http://users.cnmnetwork.com/lotl2k/prayer.html Downloaded December 16, 1999 "The Bible and Public Prayer." Public Prayer. http://www.religioustolerance.org/prayer.htm. Downloaded December 16, 1999
Monday, November 25, 2019
Characters of a Seperate Peace Essays Characters of a Seperate Peace Paper Characters of a Seperate Peace Paper Finny are the two main characters of the book A Separate Peace by John Knowles. They are two very deferent people but manage to still be friends despite. During the course of the book, it becomes evident Genes envy for Finny. However given the nature of Gene and Fannys personalities It Is almost Impossible for Gene to not envy Finny. Gene Is an excellent academic student, but feels that he needs something more. When looking at his Myers-Briggs personality type he seems to fit into that category off JIFFS. These types of people are said to care for people and work endlessly on heir behalf. They have the need to please others and feel needed. This applies to Gene with his very co-dependent relationship with Finny. He wants to desperately to be what Finny is. And a soaring sense of freedom revealed that this must have been my purpose from the first: to become a part of Phonies. (77) I believe that Gene desperately wants to fit in and be liked and will please anyone to do so, but not without resentment being held. His desire to fit in and be something other then himself Is shown In how quickly he is willing to Join the army. Finny Is an excellent athlete, charming, and funny. He can get away with Just about anything, the rules Just dont seem to apply to him. When looking at the Myers-Briggs test I would classify him as an FEND. These types of people are said to be warm and enthusiastic people, and good at almost anything they put their mind to. Finny has a certain hold over people, especially Gene. Gene begins to realize this when he thinks What was I doing up here anyway? Why did I let Finny talk me into stupid things like this? Was he getting some kind of hold over me? (9) Finny doesnt mean to be manipulative or have a hold over people he is genuine in his desire to make things more fun for others. When looking at Gene and Finny as individuals you see two very different people. You see Gene as someone who feels the desire to please people but is not satisfied with himself, and Finny as someone who Is a fantastic athlete and possesses an undeniable charm. Because of Gene and Flybys close relationship, Finny Is the person Gene decides to want to be Instead of himself. This desire ultimately translates into envy. When Gene starts to become aware of this new he justifies it by eying its a mutual rivalry. Yes, I sensed it like the sweat of relief when nausea passes away; I felt better. We were even after all, even in enmity. The deadly rivalry was on both sides after all. (54) Gene believes that because he is Jealous of Fannys athletic capabilities, that Finny must in return be Jealous of Genes academic achievements. When Finny falls off the tree due to Gene shaking it, at first Gene feels a sense of liberation as opposed to guilt, because in a way he has defeated Finny. Once Finny can no longer be a great athlete the feeling of envy is temporarily lifted. Gene and Finny start to work together as a unit, helping the other where they are weak. When Finny dies, Gene is satisfied because he will finally live on to be Finny. In a Separate Peace the human nature of envy Is looked at. Gene feels an abnormally large resentment and envy towards Finny, whereas Finny seems to initially feel no envy at all towards Gene. When Finny dies Gene is finally able to be Tree, wanly poses ten quest In my mina want IT Gene Ana never met Hon.: w he have continued to live on feeling the need to be someone other then himself, or would he have reached self acceptance through a more healthy means?
Friday, November 22, 2019
Business Law-discussion - Assignment Example However, the current laws compel producers to take responsibility for effects of their goods. Arguably, the approach forces manufacturers to trade safe goods and services unlike in the past (Twomey, Jennings, and Fox 174). Besides, enforcement of polluter pay principles and eco-tax aid firms to participate in restoring damaged environs in order to promote sustainability. Unlike in the past, modern societies have adequate access to inclusive product information. Hence, buyers make informed decisions in the purchase of goods and services. The customer protection laws stamp the achievement through warrant of honest and fair dealings with consumers. Despite the highlighted advantages, enforcement of consumer protection laws detriments business, particularly small enterprises by increasing operational costs. Modern business entities spend more money to establish compliance mechanisms such as hiring specialists, retraining staffs, and re-designing labelling and packaging. Lately, producers spend profits to address customer grievances, especially in the courts. A hidden cost also exists on imposed fines, restoring damaged company reputation and strengthening customer loyalty. Therefore, the laws discourage potential entrepreneurs. Consumer protection laws specifically focus on the welfare of buyers. Thus, states should launch regulations and enforcement agencies with a market-wide protection role. Moreover, governments and business stakeholders should introduce comprehensive regulations to guide dispute resolution mechanisms and seller liability for oversight of third-party
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Marketing Principles and Practice - Essay Example According to the study of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ buying behaviour, the fundamental influences are generally focused on certain basic aspects including Cultural, Social, Personal and Psychological factors of a buyer on their purchase decision. However, from the perspective of postgraduate studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ buying decisions, it has been observed that there is a significant variance in terms of buying decisions regarding fashion products within this customer segment. Hence, the buying decisions of the postgraduate students have significantly modernized or evolved accordingly to the modern situational influences such as, influence of peers, social media, benefits of advanced electronic shopping methods and influence of recent trends among others. The modern organisations are significantly conscious regarding the desires of the college or post-graduate student segment. In general, there is a positive attitude which has been observed in the postgraduate students with regard to their purchasing or acquiring of fashion products and advanced services. The customers in that specific segment have more favourable attitudes on buying high-end fashion products. The postgraduate students form a positive or indifferent attitude concerning purchase of fashionable products in keeping with their previous buying experience. Moreover, beliefs regarding the benefits of buying fashionable products generally facilitate to derive an encouraging influence on postgraduate studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards purchasing fashion products. ... onal influences such as, influence of peers, social media, benefits of advanced electronic shopping methods and influence of recent trends among others. The modern organisations are significantly conscious regarding the desires of the college or post-graduate student segment. This segment highly involves in acquiring the products according to their attitude and beliefs (Wang & Xiao, 2009). In general, there is a positive attitude which has been observed in the postgraduate students with regard to their purchasing or acquiring of fashion products and advanced services. The customers in that specific segment have more favourable attitudes on buying high-end fashion products. The postgraduate students form a positive or indifferent attitude concerning purchase of fashionable products in keeping with their previous buying experience. Moreover, beliefs regarding the benefits of buying fashionable products generally facilitate to derive an encouraging influence on postgraduate studentsÃ¢â ¬â¢ attitudes towards purchasing fashion products. However, the risk of being out of fashion by purchasing products that might not be suitable according to the present trend is a negative influence on postgraduate students. Although in terms of purchasing fashion products personal needs as well as preferences play a dominating role, the various ethical issues that might be negatively associated with a company can create pessimistic influence towards purchasing of that fashion companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products by postgraduate student segment of customers (Lee, 2009). Buying Behaviour and Influences The buying decision of the postgraduate students is highly focused towards focusing on recent trends along with maintaining attitudinal involvement with the products they acquire. Moreover, there are several major
Monday, November 18, 2019
Caliban in Aim Cesaire's A Tempest - Essay Example He describes how Prospero, the Duke of Milan, usesÃ magicÃ toÃ graspÃ absoluteÃ powerÃ over Caliban and Ariel. Aime depicts ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s as a driven and powerfulÃ masterÃ as well as colonizer whoÃ powerÃ over the islandÃ territoryÃ by superiorÃ forceÃ andÃ authority. On the hand, he portrays Caliban as a colonizedÃ masterÃ who ignores Prospero and disobeys hisÃ commandÃ onÃ manyÃ occasions throughout the play (Harrison 25). CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s response and authority to control ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s and powerful commandsÃ depictÃ him as authoritative. For example, Prospero refers to Caliban as an ugly ape (Cesaire 17). CalibanÃ quicklyÃ reiterates:Ã YouÃ think IÃ¢â¬â¢m uglyÃ¢â¬ ¦well I do not think you are so handsome yourself. With that large hooked nose,Ã youÃ look just likeÃ sameÃ old vulture, an old vulture with a scrawny neck! (Cesaire 17). WeÃ learnÃ that Caliban isÃ braveÃ and courageous. He expresses his feelings towards Prospero and takes control over him. Cesaire depicts Caliban as Ã¢â¬Ëthe king of the IslandÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cesaire 17). Caliban views Prospero asÃ narrow-mindedÃ and intolerant when he refers to his mother Sycorax is a witch and aÃ ghostÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cesaire 18). He views Prospero asÃ narrow-mindedÃ andÃ intolerant: Ã¢â¬ËAnyhowÃ youÃ onlyÃ thinkÃ she isÃ deadÃ because you think the world itself isÃ deadÃ¢â¬ ¦ItÃ¢â¬â¢s so much easier that way!Ã¢â¬â¢ (Cesaire 18). After Caliban reminded by Prospero that Sycorax isÃ dead, he starts to gain more confidence andÃ powerÃ to control ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s ruthlessÃ command.Ã When Prospero accuses Caliban of rape; Ã¢â¬ËGood God, you tried to rape my daughterÃ¢â¬â¢, Caliban reiterates forcefully: Rape!Ã Rape! ListenÃ youÃ old goat, you are the one who put thoseÃ dirtyÃ thoughts in myÃ¢â¬ ¦I could not care less for your daughter, or about your cave, for that matter (Cesaire 19). Caliban derives hisÃ magicÃ from Sycorax toÃ shapeÃ and make ProsperoÃ powerlessÃ of
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Red Fox: Characteristics, Environment and Habits The red fox is portrayed as a sly, cunning creature and has been symbolised in folklore across the world for centuries. They remain an important factor in English culture primarily due to humans hunting foxes with gun dogs. In other countries such as North America they majorly contributed to the fur trade (Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann and Macdonald, 2004). The reason foxes are represented as devious and crafty animals down to their appearance and their ability to continue to exist in most environments. Urban and rural environments differ in a number of ways. Urban environments present a number of challenges to animals such as household predators (ref), human interaction (ref) and complicated landscapes (ref). There are also some advantages to living in an urban area, for example the abundance of easily accessible food (ref) and man-made shelters (ref). In recent years notably in England the rate of urban environments encroaching into rural is increasing leading to a significant impact on wildlife. In order to survive in an urban environment animals must make adaptations to their behaviour and in some cases their morphology (ref). Some animals are better at adapting than others; rodents are perhaps one of the better known examples. If animals cannot make these adaptations in areas where their environment is depleting, their species will become under threat from extinction. The red fox is clearly successful in coping with these ever-changing environments and this is attributable to t heir ability to make adaptations. One such adaptation and arguably the most important is behaviour (Natural England, 2007). In order for any predator to be successful and exploit a range of diverse environments it must be able to locate prey on a regular basis. The red foxs diet is enormously varied due to its coverage across so many different habitats. Unsurprisingly while they are classified as carnivores, they appear to be taking on a more omnivores style diet. (Natural England 2007). The red fox has also presented food preferences but is generally inclined to take the most readily available foods. (Scott 1955). Environment is a key aspect in the variation of the red foxs diet. Today the red fox exists in Rural, urban and suburban environments in this country and there is a large variety of food available to them. Red foxes will prey on a range of birds, small mammals, insects and other invertebrates. They will also eat fruit and vegetables which account for about one fourth of the foxes diet, although it cannot sustain the red fox as well as meat would. (Natural England 2007 and Zimen 1980). One of the most suitable habitats for a fox is one that has a high density of small mammals such as rabbits, hares and voles. These animals are easy for the fox to catch and provide enough energy and substance to sustain a red fox (Zimen 1980). An environment that lacks this kind of prey would in theory be an unsuitable place for a fox to survive. However there are countless examples in this country and across the world of foxes that are living in habitats where small mammals are a fairly minute part of their diet and yet they are still thriving. (Zimen 1980). Foxes living in urban environments have a comparatively different diet to those living in rural habitats. These foxes have a few different food sources which are arguably easier to obtain than hunting small mammals. The prime example of this is anthropogenic food which is in abundance in many urban environments due to the population of humans. (Harris and Baker 2001). The red fox can scavenge an array of discarded meat and other food whilst using minimal energy in the process. Other food sources such as carrion, fruits and even pets mean that the red fox can successfully live in this tough concrete jungle without its natural diet. (MacDonald and Sillero-Zubiri 2004). The food that the foxes scavenge also attracts some of their natural prey in rural areas giving them ampl e opportunity to hunt live prey. However it cannot be assumed that urban foxes will eat the same food in all urban environments, their diet is highly variable (Luniak 2004). A scientific study comparing the diet of the red fox in Bristol City Centre and Central London has revealed how a location change can cause dietary variation. Professor Steven Harris of Bristol University discovered that although these two places are alike and provide very similar food, the foxes consume different quantities of these foods. This proves that red foxes are opportunistic and will literally eat whatever they can find in order to stay alive. According to wildlife biologist Marsha Sovada with the U.S. Geological Surveys Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center in North Dakota, Ã¢â¬Å"Red foxes will eat anything-insects, birds, mammals, sunflower seeds. With such a catholic diet, the animals are virtually guaranteed ample food, opportunistically feeding on whatevers out there.Ã¢â¬ (Taylor 2001). In conclusion foxes will eat almost any food type and are true opportunistic eaters. This vastly varied diet will have a great impact on their success as a species and enables the red fox to live in almost any environment as a result (Matheson 1997 and Taylor 2001). Other canids such as the Asian Dhole (Asiatic Wild Dog) that failed to make this adaptation in diet amongst other factors are now an endangered species (MacDonald and Sillero-Zubiri 2004). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dhole The red fox has a behavioural characteristic called caching that assists in the success of the species. The caching of food that the red fox cannot eat straight away is also observed in other predators such as the mountain lion that frequently stores carcases. Mountain Lion The red fox has a much smaller stomach size for its body weight therefore they cannot stock up on enough to wait a long time for the next meal. This is why the red fox caches food in small holes which are usually spaced apart in different places. This particular behavioural adaptation serves a useful purpose in order to survive and it insures for times of prey shortage (Natural England 2007). The red fox also has a greatly developed memory for hoard locations which is useful when these caches can span across many territories (Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann and Macdonald 2004). There is however a downside to this instinct they carry. When faced with a large quantity of favoured prey the red fox will often kill more than it could possibly eat before spoiling. A common example of this is the killing of captive birds such as hens. This is commonly referred to as surplus killing and will only happen if there is a great amount of vulnerable prey available (Natural England 2007). This does not increase the relationship with humans resulting in efforts to trap and kill many foxes. Ã¢â¬Å"The fox probably pounces on any available source of a smell or a sound and examines what he has captured later.Ã¢â¬ (Murie 1936) An example that illustrates the red foxs ability to swap food type is an outbreak of myxomatosis a disease which wiped out a large proportion of the rabbit population in this country in 1953. The rabbit was certainly the red foxes preferred food type at this time as they provided a fair amount of meat for an easier catch. Hunting Developing techniques in order to catch prey is imperative to any predators survival since their prey is commonly mobile. Each predator will have various techniques in capturing and killing its prey (Scott 1955). Red foxes have developed a range of hunting techniques in order to catch a diverse variety of prey (Grambo 1997). The red fox is primarily a crepuscular hunter but on occasion it will also hunt throughout the night (Especially in urban areas due to artificial lighting causing them to extend their hunting time (Fabricius 2010). They hunt around this time due to their prey being mostly active around dawn and dust. However the red fox can hunt during the day especially when food supply is in short supply in winter. They normally hunt in solidarity but it is not unknown for them to pair up in order to take down larger prey, such as calves (Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann and Macdonald 2004). The red fox has made many clever hunting adaptations in order to catch its diverse range of prey. For insects, the fox will put little effort into the method of capturing. They will commonly just walk up to insects without any stealthily moves and eat it. This method works well for foxes and as an insect requires little substance, this easy way of killing is suitable (Grambo 1997). For small mammals such as rodents the red fox will take on a far stealthier role. They will usually carefully walk around areas where the desired prey would be present, listening for any signs of movement. The moment the fox hears any scurrying, the red fox will launch itself straight up into the air and then pins down the victim with astonishing precision. The fox will then deliver a series of lethal bites (Harris and Baker 2001). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Red Fox Hunting Rodent Other canids have this technique such as the coyote but generally most canids will shake their prey violently in order to kill (Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann and Macdonald 2004). The most challenging prey type the red fox encounters is Rabbits, hares and other swift small mammals. Hares can achieve speeds of up to 45mph when escaping predators and rabbits will run in a zigzag motion whilst reaching speeds of 30 mph (Elert 2001). These small mammals sustain the fox much longer than insects or any other small scavenged items so they are important to the foxs diet (Zimen 1980). The red foxs hunting technique for this prey is similar to most other predators. They will stalk their prey slinking along the ground for as long as they can stay undetected readying themselves for a pursuit. As soon as the fox has been noticed a rapid chase will ensue which either will result in the prey escaping, or the fox delivering a lethal bite to the animals legs. In addition, the red fox can reach speeds of up to 30mph giving it a realistic chance of catching this hasty prey. Furthermore they are able to jump 6ft high which is particularly useful when chasing rabbits and hares. (M atheson 1997 and Zimen 1980). Fox Stalking meal There is one last notable method in capturing prey that is fairly unconventional commonly referred to as Ã¢â¬ËCharming. After spotting the desired prey, the red fox will begin playing and display odd behaviour in full view of its prey. This can result in the prey moving closer in order to see what the fox is doing. The fox will then ambush the prey when its in close enough range. They have also been known to play dead which will attract carrion birds. This technique truly illustrates the foxs intelligence and is contrast to their otherwise sly and silent moves (Zimen 1980 and Matheson 1997). Red Fox leaping whilst charming Through having this varied range of hunting techniques, the red fox is able to have a wide-ranging diet. They have a tailored technique in capturing animals for each specific prey and situation. This ultimately helps the red fox become widespread as it can transfer this collection of hunting skills to different prey living in most environments. Conclusion for diet and hunting The process of finding food and hunting prey is imperative to any living creatures survival. The red fox has proved to be a very successful forager as they can seek out food in an array of different environments. The way in which it exploits a wide range of foods enables the fox to do well even in areas which at a glance do not seem to provide it with the means to thrive. Reproduction Reproduction is fundamental for any species to be successful. Red foxes are monoestrous, they ovulate only once a year. Species that are commonly thought of as particularly abundant, such as the rabbit, have many litters per year. From this a person might assume that the red fox would have lower population numbers in comparison to the rabbit as they will only have one litter a year (Natural England 2007). A vixen on average will only have 5-6 kits a year and the infant mortality rate is reality high with only 2-3 kits surviving. However despite this they are still flourishing and this is down to several reasons. Ã¢â¬Å"Because theyre small predators with a fast reproductive rate, red foxes can dominate other species once they become abundant,Ã¢â¬ says Ron Jurek, a wildlife biologist with the California Department of Fish and Game. The dedication of the mother to the wellbeing of her offspring is the one of the reasons for the red foxs success (Matheson 1997). Prior to the birth of her kits, the mother will prepare a natal den that is situated close to food and water supplies. This ensures the mother has access to food resources to sustain her, without straying too far from the den site. Female foxes will spend a large amount of time searching for a den that is concealed from humans and potential predators of the offspring, such as the badger. When the vixen has given birth to her kits, she will remain with them for the first two weeks in order to keep them warm relying on her mate to bring her any food she needs. This caring behaviour will help all of her kits to reach adulthood increasing the success of the species. An additional benefit is that the mothers milk is very rich providing a good amount of sustenance (Matheson 1997). Nursing kits Another key explanation for their high population is the capability of breeding at a young age. The red fox will on average reach sexual maturity at around 10 months old. In comparison to other canids such as the gray wolf that reaches sexual maturity around 2 or 3 years, this is relatively young. Perhaps if the fox population was more stable like the gray wolf then they would not need to reproduce at such a young age (VanGinkel 2002 and Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann and Macdonald 2004). The red fox has another useful behavioural characteristic which is predominantly present in urban environments which can help lower the red foxs infant mortality rate. Normally when vixens kits have maturated they will separate and search for their own territories. However young females can stay with their parents for another year. They purposely stay behind to help raise their younger siblings and provide their mother with food. Although this altruism may not have an enormous impact on the success of the litter, the experience the vixen will gain by helping raise kits can be transferred to her own (Matheson 1997). A prime example where this behaviour is more successful is in wolves. The alpha female is the only allowed having pups and all the other females in the pack will help raise them. Ecological adaptations- 1500 Distribution and abundance The distribution of any predator is vital its success as a species. The vaster the distribution of a species, the more likely it is to succeed. If one environment was completely destroyed resulting in a species dying, as long as that species has colonised elsewhere it will not die out (MacDonald and Sillero-Zubiri 2004). The red fox is the most prevalent of all the predators on earth spanning across nearly the entire Holarctic region. They live in 83 countries in five continents covering 70 million sq-km and are the only canid to do so (Luniak 2004). In fact the only place the red fox does not exist is tropical Islands, Australasian Islands, Madagascar and Malta. They are only present in Australia because man introduced them there. The reason they are absent from these places is although they are fairly strong swimmers, there is a vast amount of water to cross in order to settle there and they have not made it. This is a tremendous achievement for any predator and the only other predator that comes close to this is the grey wolf. They of course no longer exist in this country due to hunting to extinction and major loss of habitat. This furthers the point of the fox is successful as they were faced with remarkably similar circumstances, and continue to exist. The red fox has encountered many extermina tion efforts and ever increasing natural habitat loss and yet still covers most of its original range. The map below illustrates the areas in which the red fox inhabits (Zimen 1980 and Luniak 2004). The current population of the red fox in England today is very difficult to determine. Dr Johnathan Reynolds of the Game and Conservancy Trust states: Ã¢â¬Å"Foxes have been on the increase in urban areas since the 1940s when they first started colonising towns and cities but we have also had a number of setbacks in the population because of the mange and other diseases. At the moment it is difficult to say what the overall picture is.Ã¢â¬ (Gray 2009) The last official estimate of the red fox in 1995 found there to be 240.000 living across the U.K. This figure is likely to have increased as their behavior is changing allowing them to live closer and closer to humans (Gray 2009 and Luniak 2004). Habitat One of the reasons why the red fox is so successful is ability to live all almost any habitat. They thrive in habitats from extreme examples such as tundra and desert to the more commonly associated woodland, scrub, farmland and urban environments (Luniak 2004). Below illustrates just how different these habitats can be: This capability of living in different habitats is a security against any landscape destruction. If for example the whole of England became a purely urban environment, the likely hood of the red fox surviving is high given their current urbanisation ability (Harris and Baker 2001). Other predators that struggle to cope with loss of habitat and fail to make adaptations are under threat of extinction. An example of this is the case of the critically endangered Darwin fox. The Darwin fox lives just off the west coast of Chile on ChiloÃ © Island and mainland Chile. It covers the least geographical range of all the canids and is one of the most endangered. The main reason why they are on the brink of extinction is their lack of adaptations made to survive. They live in a unique island temperate forest which does not exist anywhere else. Loss of habitat means loss of prey resulting in them simply dying out as opposed to adapting and finding new sources of food and habitat (Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann and Macdonald 2004). Territory and range They have adapated their territoriy range to suit the need of the area. Like most predators, red foxes are territorial and in order for an individual fox to survive it needs to establish its own territory. Each territory provides shelter and adequate food for a species to live on. A predators territory size can differ in every habitat. It tends to be directly correlated to the amount of food available and good quality denning sites (Natural England, 2007). The red fox population extents across various different environments. For this reason there is enormous variation in territory size. In a typical rural environment in England, the foxs territory size is around two to six square kilometres. In contrast an urban foxs territory size is approximately half a square kilometres. The red fox has reduced its territory size significantly in urban environments. There are several reasons for this change such as their territory becoming bound by the road and other large urban obstacles. There are also space limitations due to a lack of green areas compared to their rural cousin. A bonus for a red fox living in an urban environment means they do not have to travel too far to find their next meal. This leads to many urban foxes living a sedentary life thus having a smaller territory (Luniak, 2004). Red foxes have also developed a reasonably relaxed approach to living in close range to another territory in urban environments. The red fox will have two small territories, one that provides shelter which is defended against any intruders. The other is where hunting and foraging will take place and tends to overlap with other foxes territories. This tolerance has a positive impact on the fox population as it allows foxes to live successfully in built up urban landscapes (Natural England, 2007 and Luniak, 2004). A researcher at Bristol University, Ellie Whittaker said Ã¢â¬ËThe animals move around a lot geographically and in a lot of cities the population of foxes is absolutely exploding (Gray 2009). The red fox has clearly managed to establish a life alongside humans in these difficult urban environments. The red fox will like most predators, mark their territory to preserve borders. Although this seems very defensive behaviour it serves a useful purpose. Red fox scent marking Ã¢â¬ËRed foxes communicate with facial expressions, vocalisations and scent marking (Luniak, 2004). This is one of the main ways the red fox communicates and in actual fact helps reduce aggressive clashes between foxes. It is uncommon for foxes to fight resulting in injury when another fox strays into its territory. This means there is a very low mortality rate from foxes killing each other increasing the success of the species (Matheson 1997). Avoidance behaviour and risk taking A red fox mistakenly sneaking into a lion enclosure Every animal has a flight distance and it is a fundamental behavioural trait, especially for animals that are preyed on. Flight distances vary greatly depending on the species and the environment they are living in. However the purpose it serves never changes. The key function of a flight distance is to keep an individual animal alive by running from a potential threat. (Luniak, 2004) A prime example of an animal that lacked any form of flight distance was the Dodo. The Dodo lived contented on the island of Mauritius until humans discovered the island in 1505. Whilst the explorers were there, they discovered this effortless source of food that would literally walk up to them without hesitation. The main reason the Dodo became extinct was their trusting towards every living creature. Up to the point humans invaded their island, they had no predators, therefore had not developed the flight mechanism that would have arguably saved their species (Maas, 2008). 3d model of a Dodo Consequently an animal with a short or nonexistent flight distance has an increased risk of being caught by a predator, resulting in a decline in the species or in the Dodos case, extinction. On the other hand an animal with too long a flight distant is in danger of a failing population due to the disturbance that fleeing frequently can cause. This constant running effects breeding, foraging and other behaviour vital to a species survival (Moller, 2008). The red fox has no real natural predator in this country other than badgers that occasionally kill young kits. The only predatorial threat they face on a daily basis is humans. In order for any species to co- exist amongst humans, they must develop a degree of tameness toward people or they will not survive in an urban environment (Luniak, 2004). The red fox is under threat from humans in both rural and urban environments and has adapted its flight distance to suit environment. From organised hunts to the odd disgruntled farmer the red fox has faced danger from man for centuries in rural landscapes. The red fox has adapted well to the threat if humans in rural environments. Wildlife journalist Keith Broomfield has studied the red fox for years and comments on the rural fox: Ã¢â¬Å"Here is a shy and careful animal, skirting around farmhouses and villages, making only the occasional foray to raid a hen house or sniff around for rats and mice in a farmyard during the dead of night. Disturb a country fox during the course of a walk, and in a blur of russet he will be gone (Broomfield, 2010).Ã¢â¬ They have still maintained the correct flight distances for living in rural areas as the threat they face are still prevalent. In urban environments By reducing their flight distance in urban environments they have managed to settle and live amongst humans successfully. They may even be becoming too complacent in some areas (Luniak, 2004). Red fox photographed on the London underground. They are not quick enough when it comes to traffic. Wildlife journalist Keith Broomfield wrote Ã¢â¬Å"When I first started to watch Edinburgh foxes in the mid-1970s. They were still quite shy then but now it is not uncommon to watch them nonchalantly trotting along the pavements of Glasgow or Edinburgh, unfazed by meeting a human (Broomfield, 2010).Ã¢â¬ Morphology The red fox is indisputably the easiest of all fox species to identify due to its unique markings and colour (Luniak, 2004). Its iconic rusty red coat, black legs and ears and white belly and tail tip are suitable for camouflage in a forest at night. They can keep well hidden as they sneak through the trees and vegetation. There are many colour variants which can vary from red to copper enabling them to live in other biomes such as sandy desert and open country. (Matheson, 1997). The red foxes kits will come out of the burrow a sandy brown colour. This camouflage helps protect the young from any predators especially in countries where they are hunted by lynx, wolves and other predators. Red fox cubs blending into their surroundings. The ability to blend in to their surroundings is especially beneficial when capturing prey and enables them to get closer to their victim undetected (Zimen, 1980). Red Fox example in camouflage However a significant proportion of the fox population live in urban environments (Grambo, 1997). This camouflage is not suited for urban landscapes and unlike other species they have not adapted in anyway physically in order to live in urban environments. Fortunately the red fox does not rely on camouflage alone in order to survive (Luniak, 2004). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Red Fox in Urban environment The red fox has a surprisingly misleading appearance. Its red fur consists of long hairs which bulk out the form of the red fox. The red fox is approximately half the weight of other canids this size. This is owing to very light bones in comparison to dogs and a stomach only half the size of most canids.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Continuing Role of the Outside World in Afghanistan Afghanistan has been considered a land of violence and discontent for much of its history. The government always seems to be in disorder, and its people never seem completely happy. Because of this image of being unfit to control its own affairs, the international community has long been involved in the history of Afghanistan. The world intervenes in Afghan conflicts and works to keep the country in order. Sometimes the outside assistance is advantageous to the Afghan people, but at other times it is unnecessary and only creates more problems. In this paper I will examine the prominent role of the international community throughout AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s history. I will begin with the First Afghan War of 1838 and continue through the war on terrorism of 2001. The function of the world in each of these conflicts and their aftermaths will be the main focus. The First Afghan War was the beginning to years of international intervention in Afghanistan. In 1838 the First Afghan War began and centered around British attempts to replace the Emir of Afghanistan because of fears of growing Russian influence. An Emir is a prince, chieftain or governor especially in the Middle East. AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s position as a buffer state between the Russian Empire and British India meant that the British and Indian authorities were anxious to ensure that a pro-British Emir was on the throne at Kabul. A British envoy was sent to Kabul to gain support of the current Emir, Dost Mohammed, in 1837, when the British took the threat of a Russian invasion of India via the Khyber and Bolan passes very seriously The Emir was in favor of an alliance, but when the British refused to help him gain Peshawar... ...humanitarian relief, recovery and reconstruction efforts. The government is still struggling to become independent today. This past March, the UN Security Council extended the tenure of the UNAMA until March of 2004. The role of the international community in AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs will seemingly never end as its history of conflict has left it in a state of permanent dependence. Works Cited Grau, Lester. The Soviet-Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2000. Human Rights Watch. Ã¢â¬Å"Pakistan, Iran, Russia Fueling Afghan Civil War.Ã¢â¬ New York: 13 July 2001. Maley, William. The Afghanistan Wars. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Schofield, Victoria. Afghan Frontier: Feuding and Fighting in Central Asia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. United States Government Press Releases: 11 September 2001.
Monday, November 11, 2019
CHAPTER 52 Mal'akh could feel the tattooed muscles on his back rippling as he sprinted back around the building toward the open bay door of Pod 5. I must gain access to her lab. Katherine's escape had been unanticipated . . . and problematic. Not only did she know where Mal'akh lived, she now knew his true identity . . . and that he was the one who had invaded their home a decade earlier. Mal'akh had not forgotten that night either. He had come within inches of possessing the pyramid, but destiny had obstructed him. I was not yet ready. But he was ready now. More powerful. More influential. Having endured unthinkable hardship in preparation for his return, Mal'akh was poised tonight to fulfill his destiny at last. He felt certain that before the night was over, he would indeed be staring into the dying eyes of Katherine Solomon. As Mal'akh reached the bay door, he reassured himself that Katherine had not truly escaped; she had only prolonged the inevitable. He slid through the opening and strode confidently across the darkness until his feet hit the carpet. Then he took a right turn and headed for the Cube. The banging on the door of Pod 5 had stopped, and Mal'akh suspected the guard was now trying to remove the dime Mal'akh had jammed into the key panel to render it useless. When Mal'akh reached the door that led into the Cube, he located the outer keypad and inserted Trish's key card. The panel lit up. He entered Trish's PIN and went inside. The lights were all ablaze, and as he moved into the sterile space, he squinted in amazement at the dazzling array of equipment. Mal'akh was no stranger to the power of technology; he performed his own breed of science in the basement of his home, and last night some of that science had borne fruit. The Truth. Peter Solomon's unique confinementÃ¢â¬âtrapped alone in the in-betweenÃ¢â¬âhad laid bare all of the man's secrets. I can see his soul. Mal'akh had learned certain secrets he anticipated, and others he had not, including the news about Katherine's lab and her shocking discoveries. Science is getting close, Mal'akh had realized. And I will not allow it to light the way for the unworthy. Katherine's work here had begun using modern science to answer ancient philosophical questions. Does anyone hear our prayers? Is there life after death? Do humans have souls? Incredibly, Katherine had answered all of these questions, and more. Scientifically. Conclusively. The methods she used were irrefutable. Even the most skeptical of people would be persuaded by the results of her experiments. If this information were published and made known, a fundamental shift would begin in the consciousness of man. They will start to find their way. Mal'akh's last task tonight, before his transformation, was to ensure that this did not happen. As he moved through the lab, Mal'akh located the data room that Peter had told him about. He peered through the heavy glass walls at the two holographic data-storage units. Exactly as he said they would be. Mal'akh found it hard to imagine that the contents of these little boxes could change the course of human development, and yet Truth had always been the most potent of all the catalysts. Eyeing the holographic storage units, Mal'akh produced Trish's key card and inserted it in the door's security panel. To his surprise, the panel did not light up. Apparently, access to this room was not a trust extended to Trish Dunne. He now reached for the key card he had found in Katherine's lab-coat pocket. When he inserted this one, the panel lit up. Mal'akh had a problem. I never got Katherine's PIN. He tried Trish's PIN, but it didn't work. Stroking his chin, he stepped back and examined the three-inch-thick Plexiglas door. Even with an ax, he knew he would be unable to break through and obtain the drives he needed to destroy. Mal'akh had planned for this contingency, however. Inside the power-supply room, exactly as Peter had described, Mal'akh located the rack holding several metal cylinders resembling large scuba tanks. The cylinders bore the letters LH, the number 2, and the universal symbol for combustible. One of the canisters was connected to the lab's hydrogen fuel cell. Mal'akh left one canister connected and carefully heaved one of the reserve cylinders down onto a dolly beside the rack. Then he rolled the cylinder out of the power-supply room, across the lab, to the Plexiglas door of the data-storage room. Although this location would certainly be plenty close enough, he had noticed one weakness in the heavy Plexiglas doorÃ¢â¬âthe small space between the bottom and the jamb. At the threshold, he carefully laid the canister on its side and slid the flexible rubber tube beneath the door. It took him a moment to remove the safety seals and access the cylinder's valve, but once he did, ever so gently, he uncocked the valve. Through the Plexiglas, he could see the clear, bubbling liquid begin draining out of the tube onto the floor inside the storage room. Mal'akh watched the puddle expand, oozing across the floor, steaming and bubbling as it grew. Hydrogen remained in liquid form only when it was cold, and as it warmed up, it would start to boil off. The resulting gas, conveniently, was even more flammable than the liquid. Remember the Hindenburg. Mal'akh hurried now into the lab and retrieved the Pyrex jug of Bunsen-burner fuelÃ¢â¬âa viscous, highly flammable, yet noncombustible oil. He carried it to the Plexiglas door, pleased to see the liquid hydrogen canister was still draining, the puddle of boiling liquid inside the data-storage room now covering the entire floor, encircling the pedestals that supported the holographic storage units. A whitish mist now rose from the boiling puddle as the liquid hydrogen began turning to gas . . . filling the small space. Mal'akh raised the jug of Bunsen-burner fuel and squirted a healthy amount on the hydrogen canister, the tubing, and into the small opening beneath the door. Then, very carefully, he began backing out of the lab, leaving an unbroken stream of oil on the floor as he went. The dispatch operator handling 911 calls for Washington, D.C., had been unusually busy tonight. Football, beer, and a full moon, she thought as yet another emergency call appeared on her screen, this one from a gas-station pay phone on the Suitland Parkway in Anacostia. A car accident probably. Ã¢â¬Å"Nine-one-one,Ã¢â¬ she answered. Ã¢â¬Å"What is your emergency?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I was just attacked at the Smithsonian Museum Support Center,Ã¢â¬ a panicked woman's voice said. Ã¢â¬Å"Please send the police! Forty-two-ten Silver Hill Road!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, slow down,Ã¢â¬ the operator said. Ã¢â¬Å"You need toÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I need you to send officers also to a mansion in Kalorama Heights where I think my brother may be held captive!Ã¢â¬ The operator sighed. Full moon. CHAPTER 53 As I tried to tell you,Ã¢â¬ Bellamy was saying to Langdon, Ã¢â¬Å"there is more to this pyramid than meets the eye.Ã¢â¬ Apparently so. Langdon had to admit that the stone pyramid sitting in his unzipped daybag looked much more mysterious to him now. His decryption of the Masonic cipher had rendered a seemingly meaningless grid of letters. Chaos. For a long while, Langdon examined the grid, searching for any hint of meaning within the lettersÃ¢â¬âhidden words, anagrams, clues of any sortÃ¢â¬âbut he found nothing. Ã¢â¬Å"The Masonic Pyramid,Ã¢â¬ Bellamy explained, Ã¢â¬Å"is said to guard its secrets behind many veils. Each time you pull back a curtain, you face another. You have unveiled these letters, and yet they tell you nothing until you peel back another layer. Of course, the way to do that is known only to the one who holds the capstone. The capstone, I suspect, has an inscription as well, which tells you how to decipher the pyramid.Ã¢â¬ Langdon glanced at the cube-shaped package on the desk. From what Bellamy had said, Langdon now understood that the capstone and pyramid were a Ã¢â¬Å"segmented cipherÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âa code broken into pieces. Modern cryptologists used segmented ciphers all the time, although the security scheme had been invented in ancient Greece. The Greeks, when they wanted to store secret information, inscribed it on a clay tablet and then shattered the tablet into pieces, storing each piece in a separate location. Only when all the pieces were gathered together could the secrets be read. This kind of inscribed clay tabletÃ¢â¬âcalled a symbolonÃ¢â¬âwas in fact the origin of the modern word symbol. Ã¢â¬Å"Robert,Ã¢â¬ Bellamy said, Ã¢â¬Å"this pyramid and capstone have been kept apart for generations, ensuring the secret's safety.Ã¢â¬ His tone turned rueful. Ã¢â¬Å"Tonight, however, the pieces have come dangerously close. I'm sure I don't have to say this . . . but it is our duty to ensure this pyramid is not assembled.Ã¢â¬ Langdon found Bellamy's sense of drama to be somewhat overwrought. Is he describing the capstone and pyramid . . . or a detonator and nuclear bomb? He still couldn't quite accept Bellamy's claims, but it hardly seemed to matter. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if this is the Masonic Pyramid, and even if this inscription does somehow reveal the location of ancient knowledge, how could that knowledge possibly impart the kind of power it is said to impart?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Peter always told me you were a hard man to convinceÃ¢â¬âan academic who prefers proof to speculation.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You're saying you do believe that?Ã¢â¬ Langdon demanded, feeling impatient now. Ã¢â¬Å"Respectfully . . . you are a modern, educated man. How could you believe such a thing?Ã¢â¬ Bellamy gave a patient smile. Ã¢â¬Å"The craft of Freemasonry has given me a deep respect for that which transcends human understanding. I've learned never to close my mind to an idea simply because it seems miraculous.Ã¢â¬ CHAPTER 54 Frantically, the SMSC perimeter patrolman dashed down the gravel pathway that ran along the outside of the building. He'd just received a call from an officer inside saying that the keypad to Pod 5 had been sabotaged, and that a security light indicated that Pod 5's specimen bay door was now open. What the hell is going on?! As he arrived at the specimen bay, sure enough he found the door open a couple of feet. Bizarre, he thought. This can only be unlocked from the inside. He took the flashlight off his belt and shone it into the inky blackness of the pod. Nothing. Having no desire to step into the unknown, he moved only as far as the threshold and then stuck the flashlight through the opening, swinging it to the left, and then to theÃ¢â¬â Powerful hands seized his wrist and yanked him into the blackness. The guard felt himself being spun around by an invisible force. He smelled ethanol. The flashlight flew out of his hand, and before he could even process what was happening, a rock-hard fist collided with his sternum. The guard crumpled to the cement floor . . . groaning in pain as a large black form stepped away from him. The guard lay on his side, gasping and wheezing for breath. His flashlight lay nearby, its beam spilling across the floor and illuminating what appeared to be a metal can of some sort. The can's label said it was fuel oil for a Bunsen burner. A cigarette lighter sparked, and the orange flame illuminated a vision that hardly seemed human. Jesus Christ! The guard barely had time to process what he was seeing before the bare-chested creature knelt down and touched the flame to the floor. Instantly, a strip of fire materialized, leaping away from them, racing into the void. Bewildered, the guard looked back, but the creature was already slipping out the open bay door into the night. The guard managed to sit up, wincing in pain as his eyes followed the thin ribbon of fire. What the hell?! The flame looked too small to be truly dangerous, and yet now he saw something utterly terrifying. The fire was no longer illuminating only the darkened void. It had traveled all the way to the back wall, where it was now illuminating a massive cinder-block structure. The guard had never been permitted inside Pod 5, but he knew very well what this structure must be. The Cube. Katherine Solomon's lab. The flame raced in a straight line directly to the lab's outer door. The guard clambered to his feet, knowing full well that the ribbon of oil probably continued beneath the lab door . . . and would soon start a fire inside. But as he turned to run for help, he felt an unexpected puff of air sucking past him. For a brief instant, all of Pod 5 was bathed in light. The guard never saw the hydrogen fireball erupting skyward, ripping the roof off Pod 5 and billowing hundreds of feet into the air. Nor did he see the sky raining fragments of titanium mesh, electronic equipment, and droplets of melted silicon from the lab's holographic storage units. Katherine Solomon was driving north when she saw the sudden flash of light in her rearview mirror. A deep rumble thundered through the night air, startling her. Fireworks? she wondered. Do the Redskins have a halftime show? She refocused on the road, her thoughts still on the 911 call she'd placed from the deserted gas station's pay phone. Katherine had successfully convinced the 911 dispatcher to send the police to the SMSC to investigate a tattooed intruder and, Katherine prayed, to find her assistant, Trish. In addition, she urged the dispatcher to check Dr. Abaddon's address in Kalorama Heights, where she thought Peter was being held hostage. Unfortunately, Katherine had been unable to obtain Robert Langdon's unlisted cell-phone number. So now, seeing no other option, she was speeding toward the Library of Congress, where Langdon had told her he was headed. The terrifying revelation of Dr. Abaddon's true identity had changed everything. Katherine had no idea what to believe anymore. All she knew for certain was that the same man who had killed her mother and nephew all those years ago had now captured her brother and had come to kill her. Who is this madman? What does he want? The only answer she could come up with made no sense. A pyramid? Equally confusing was why this man had come to her lab tonight. If he wanted to hurt her, why hadn't he done so in the privacy of his own home earlier today? Why go to the trouble of sending a text message and risk breaking into her lab? Unexpectedly, the fireworks in her rearview mirror grew brighter, the initial flash followed by an unexpected sightÃ¢â¬âa blazing orange fireball that Katherine could see rising above the tree line. What in the world?! The fireball was accompanied by dark black smoke . . . and it was nowhere near the Redskins' FedEx Field. Bewildered, she tried to determine what industry might be located on the other side of those trees . . . just southeast of the parkway. Then, like an oncoming truck, it hit her. CHAPTER 55 Warren Bellamy stabbed urgently at the buttons on his cell phone, trying again to make contact with someone who could help them, whoever that might be. Langdon watched Bellamy, but his mind was with Peter, trying to figure out how best to find him. Decipher the engraving, Peter's captor had commanded, and it will tell you the hiding place of mankind's greatest treasure . . . We will go together . . . and make our trade. Bellamy hung up, frowning. Still no answer. Ã¢â¬Å"Here's what I don't understand,Ã¢â¬ Langdon said. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if I could somehow accept that this hidden wisdom exists . . . and that this pyramid somehow points to its underground location . . . what am I looking for? A vault? A bunker?Ã¢â¬ Bellamy sat quietly for a long moment. Then he gave a reluctant sigh and spoke guardedly. Ã¢â¬Å"Robert, according to what I've heard through the years, the pyramid leads to the entrance of a spiral staircase.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A staircase?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's right. A staircase that leads down into the earth . . . many hundreds of feet.Ã¢â¬ Langdon could not believe what he was hearing. He leaned closer. Ã¢â¬Å"I've heard it said that the ancient wisdom is buried at the bottom.Ã¢â¬ Robert Langdon stood up and began pacing. A spiral staircase descending hundreds of feet into the earth . . . in Washington, D.C. Ã¢â¬Å"And nobody has ever seen this staircase?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Allegedly the entrance has been covered with an enormous stone.Ã¢â¬ Langdon sighed. The idea of a tomb covered with an enormous stone was right out of the biblical accounts of Jesus' tomb. This archetypal hybrid was the grandfather of them all. Ã¢â¬Å"Warren, do you believe this secret mystical staircase into the earth exists?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I've never seen it personally, but a few of the older Masons swear it exists. I was trying to call one of them just now.Ã¢â¬ Langdon continued pacing, uncertain what to say next. Ã¢â¬Å"Robert, you leave me a difficult task with respect to this pyramid.Ã¢â¬ Warren Bellamy's gaze hardened in the soft glow of the reading lamp. Ã¢â¬Å"I know of no way to force a man to believe what he does not want to believe. And yet I hope you understand your duty to Peter Solomon.Ã¢â¬ Yes, I have a duty to help him, Langdon thought. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't need you to believe in the power this pyramid can unveil. Nor do I need you to believe in the staircase it supposedly leads to. But I do need you to believe that you are morally obliged to protect this secret . . . whatever it may be.Ã¢â¬ Bellamy motioned to the little cube-shaped package. Ã¢â¬Å"Peter entrusted the capstone to you because he had faith you would obey his wishes and keep it secret. And now you must do exactly that, even if it means sacrificing Peter's life.Ã¢â¬ Langdon stopped short and wheeled around. Ã¢â¬Å"What?!Ã¢â¬ Bellamy remained seated, his expression pained but resolute. Ã¢â¬Å"It's what he would want. You need to forget Peter. He's gone. Peter did his job, doing the best he could to protect the pyramid. Now it is our job to make sure his efforts were not in vain.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I can't believe you're saying this!Ã¢â¬ Langdon exclaimed, temper flaring. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if this pyramid is everything you say it is, Peter is your Masonic brother. You're sworn to protect him above all else, even your country!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, Robert. A Mason must protect a fellow Mason above all things . . . except oneÃ¢â¬âthe great secret our brotherhood protects for all mankind. Whether or not I believe this lost wisdom has the potential that history suggests, I have taken a vow to keep it out of the hands of the unworthy. And I would not give it over to anyone . . . even in exchange for Peter Solomon's life.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know plenty of Masons,Ã¢â¬ Langdon said angrily, Ã¢â¬Å"including the most advanced, and I'm damned sure these men are not sworn to sacrifice their lives for the sake of a stone pyramid. And I'm also damned sure none of them believes in a secret staircase that descends to a treasure buried deep in the earth.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"There are circles within circles, Robert. Not everyone knows everything.Ã¢â¬ Langdon exhaled, trying to control his emotions. He, like everyone, had heard the rumors of elite circles within the Masons. Whether or not it was true seemed irrelevant in the face of this situation. Ã¢â¬Å"Warren, if this pyramid and capstone truly reveal the ultimate Masonic secret, then why would Peter involve me? I'm not even a brother . . . much less part of any inner circle.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know, and I suspect that is precisely why Peter chose you to guard it. This pyramid has been targeted in the past, even by those who infiltrated our brotherhood with unworthy motives. Peter's choice to store it outside the brotherhood was a clever one.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Were you aware I had the capstone?Ã¢â¬ Langdon asked. Ã¢â¬Å"No. And if Peter told anyone at all, it would have been only one man.Ã¢â¬ Bellamy pulled out his cell phone and hit redial. Ã¢â¬Å"And so far, I've been unable to reach him.Ã¢â¬ He got a voice-mail greeting and hung up. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, Robert, it looks like you and I are on our own for the moment. And we have a decision to make.Ã¢â¬ Langdon looked at his Mickey Mouse watch. 9:42 P.M. Ã¢â¬Å"You do realize that Peter's captor is waiting for me to decipher this pyramid tonight and tell him what it says.Ã¢â¬ Bellamy frowned. Ã¢â¬Å"Great men throughout history have made deep personal sacrifices to protect the Ancient Mysteries. You and I must do the same.Ã¢â¬ He stood up now. Ã¢â¬Å"We should keep moving. Sooner or later Sato will figure out where we are.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What about Katherine?!Ã¢â¬ Langdon demanded, not wanting to leave. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't reach her, and she never called.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Obviously, something happened.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But we can't just abandon her!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Forget Katherine!Ã¢â¬ Bellamy said, his voice commanding now. Ã¢â¬Å"Forget Peter! Forget everyone! Don't you understand, Robert, that you've been entrusted with a duty that is bigger than all of usÃ¢â¬âyou, Peter, Katherine, myself?Ã¢â¬ He locked eyes with Langdon. Ã¢â¬Å"We need to find a safe place to hide this pyramid and capstone far fromÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" A loud metallic crash echoed in the direction of the great hall. Bellamy wheeled, eyes filling with fear. Ã¢â¬Å"That was fast.Ã¢â¬ Langdon turned toward the door. The sound apparently had come from the metal bucket that Bellamy had placed on the ladder blocking the tunnel doors. They're coming for us. Then, quite unexpectedly, the crash echoed again. And again. And again. The homeless man on the bench in front of the Library of Congress rubbed his eyes and watched the strange scene unfolding before him. A white Volvo had just jumped the curb, lurched across the deserted pedestrian walkway, and screeched to a halt at the foot of the library's main entrance. An attractive, dark-haired woman had leaped out, anxiously surveyed the area, and, spotting the homeless man, had shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you have a phone?Ã¢â¬ Lady, I don't have a left shoe. Apparently realizing as much, the woman dashed up the staircase toward the library's main doors. Arriving at the top of the stairs, she grabbed the handle and tried desperately to open each of the three giant doors. The library's closed, lady. But the woman didn't seem to care. She seized one of the heavy ring-shaped handles, heaved it backward, and let it fall with a loud crash against the door. Then she did it again. And again. And again. Wow, the homeless man thought, she must really need a book. CHAPTER 56 When Katherine Solomon finally saw the massive bronze doors of the library swing open before her, she felt as if an emotional floodgate had burst. All the fear and confusion she had bottled up tonight came pouring through. The figure in the library doorway was Warren Bellamy, a friend and confidant of her brother's. But it was the man behind Bellamy in the shadows whom Katherine felt happiest to see. The feeling was apparently mutual. Robert Langdon's eyes filled with relief as she rushed through the doorway . . . directly into his arms. As Katherine lost herself in the comforting embrace of an old friend, Bellamy closed the front door. She heard the heavy lock click into place, and at last she felt safe. Tears came unexpectedly, but she fought them back. Langdon held her. Ã¢â¬Å"It's okay,Ã¢â¬ he whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"You're okay.Ã¢â¬ Because you saved me, Katherine wanted to tell him. He destroyed my lab . . . all my work. Years of research . . . up in smoke. She wanted to tell him everything, but she could barely breathe. Ã¢â¬Å"We'll find Peter.Ã¢â¬ Langdon's deep voice resonated against her chest, comforting her somehow. Ã¢â¬Å"I promise.Ã¢â¬ I know who did this! Katherine wanted to yell. The same man who killed my mother and nephew! Before she could explain herself, an unexpected sound broke the silence of the library. The loud crash echoed up from beneath them in a vestibule stairwellÃ¢â¬âas if a large metal object had fallen on a tile floor. Katherine felt Langdon's muscles stiffen instantly. Bellamy stepped forward, his expression dire. Ã¢â¬Å"We're leaving. Now.Ã¢â¬ Bewildered, Katherine followed as the Architect and Langdon hurried across the great hall toward the library's famed reading room, which was ablaze with light. Bellamy quickly locked the two sets of doors behind them, first the outer, then the inner. Katherine followed in a daze as Bellamy hustled them both toward the center of the room. The threesome arrived at a reading desk where a leather bag sat beneath a light. Beside the bag, there was a tiny cube-shaped package, which Bellamy scooped up and placed inside the bag, alongside aÃ¢â¬â Katherine stopped short. A pyramid? Although she had never seen this engraved stone pyramid, she felt her entire body recoil in recognition. Somehow her gut knew the truth. Katherine Solomon had just come face-to-face with the object that had so deeply damaged her life. The pyramid. Bellamy zipped up the bag and handed it to Langdon. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't let this out of your sight.Ã¢â¬ A sudden explosion rocked the room's outer doors. The tinkling of shattered glass followed. Ã¢â¬Å"This way!Ã¢â¬ Bellamy spun, looking scared now as he rushed them over to the central circulation deskÃ¢â¬âeight counters around a massive octagonal cabinet. He guided them in behind the counters and then pointed to an opening in the cabinet. Ã¢â¬Å"Get in there!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In there?Ã¢â¬ Langdon demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"They'll find us for sure!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Trust me,Ã¢â¬ Bellamy said. Ã¢â¬Å"It's not what you think.Ã¢â¬ CHAPTER 57 Mal'akh gunned his limousine north toward Kalorama Heights. The explosion in Katherine's lab had been bigger than he had anticipated, and he had been lucky to escape unscathed. Conveniently, the ensuing chaos had enabled him to slip out without opposition, powering his limousine past a distracted gate guard who was busy yelling into a telephone. I've got to get off the road, he thought. If Katherine hadn't yet phoned the police, the explosion would certainly draw their attention. And a shirtless man driving a limousine would be hard to miss. After years of preparation, Mal'akh could scarcely believe the night was now upon him. The journey to this moment had been a long, difficult one. What began years ago in misery . . . will end tonight in glory. On the night it all began, he had not had the name Mal'akh. In fact, on the night it all began, he had not had any name at all. Inmate 37. Like most of the prisoners at the brutal Soganlik Prison outside of Istanbul, Inmate 37 was here because of drugs. He had been lying on his bunk in a cement cell, hungry and cold in the darkness, wondering how long he would be incarcerated. His new cellmate, whom he'd met only twenty-four hours ago, was sleeping in the bunk above him. The prison administrator, an obese alcoholic who hated his job and took it out on the inmates, had just killed all the lights for the night. It was almost ten o'clock when Inmate 37 heard the conversation filtering in through the ventilation shaft. The first voice was unmistakably clearÃ¢â¬âthe piercing, belligerent accent of the prison administrator, who clearly did not appreciate being woken up by a late-night visitor. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, yes, you've come a long way,Ã¢â¬ he was saying, Ã¢â¬Å"but there are no visitors for the first month. State regulations. No exceptions.Ã¢â¬ The voice that replied was soft and refined, filled with pain. Ã¢â¬Å"Is my son safe?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He is a drug addict.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is he being treated well?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well enough,Ã¢â¬ the administrator said. Ã¢â¬Å"This is not a hotel.Ã¢â¬ There was a pained pause. Ã¢â¬Å"You do realize the U.S. State Department will request extradition.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, yes, they always do. It will be granted, although the paperwork might take us a couple of weeks . . . or even a month . . . depending.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Depending on what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well,Ã¢â¬ the administrator said, Ã¢â¬Å"we are understaffed.Ã¢â¬ He paused. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course, sometimes concerned parties like yourself make donations to the prison staff to help us push things through more quickly.Ã¢â¬ The visitor did not reply. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Solomon,Ã¢â¬ the administrator continued, lowering his voice, Ã¢â¬Å"for a man like yourself, for whom money is no object, there are always options. I know people in government. If you and I work together, we may be able to get your son out of here . . . tomorrow, with all the charges dropped. He would not even have to face prosecution at home.Ã¢â¬ The response was immediate. Ã¢â¬Å"Forgetting the legal ramifications of your suggestion, I refuse to teach my son that money solves all problems or that there is no accountability in life, especially in a serious matter like this.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You'd like to leave him here?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'd like to speak to him. Right now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As I said, we have rules. Your son is unavailable to you . . . unless you would like to negotiate his immediate release.Ã¢â¬ A cold silence hung for several moments. Ã¢â¬Å"The State Department will be contacting you. Keep Zachary safe. I expect him on a plane home within the week. Good night.Ã¢â¬ The door slammed. Inmate 37 could not believe his ears. What kind of father leaves his son in this hellhole in order to teach him a lesson? Peter Solomon had even rejected an offer to clear Zachary's record. It was later that night, lying awake in his bunk, that Inmate 37 had realized how he would free himself. If money was the only thing separating a prisoner from freedom, then Inmate 37 was as good as free. Peter Solomon might not be willing to part with money, but as anyone who read the tabloids knew, his son, Zachary, had plenty of money, too. The next day, Inmate 37 spoke privately to the administrator and suggested a planÃ¢â¬âa bold, ingenious scheme that would give them both exactly what they wanted. Ã¢â¬Å"Zachary Solomon would have to die for this to work,Ã¢â¬ explained Inmate 37. Ã¢â¬Å"But we could both disappear immediately. You could retire to the Greek Islands. You would never see this place again.Ã¢â¬ After some discussion, the two men shook hands. Soon Zachary Solomon will be dead, Inmate 37 thought, smiling to think how easy it would be. It was two days later that the State Department contacted the Solomon family with the horrific news. The prison snapshots showed their son's brutally bludgeoned body, lying curled and lifeless on the floor of his prison cell. His head had been bashed in by a steel bar, and the rest of him was battered and twisted beyond what was humanly imaginable. He appeared to have been tortured and finally killed. The prime suspect was the prison administrator himself, who had disappeared, probably with all of the murdered boy's money. Zachary had signed papers moving his vast fortune into a private numbered account, which had been emptied immediately following his death. There was no telling where the money was now. Peter Solomon flew to Turkey on a private jet and returned with their son's casket, which they buried in the Solomon family cemetery. The prison administrator was never found. Nor would he be, Inmate 37 knew. The Turk's rotund body was now resting at the bottom of the Sea of Marmara, feeding the blue manna crabs that migrated in through the Bosporus Strait. The vast fortune belonging to Zachary Solomon had all been moved to an untraceable numbered account. Inmate 37 was a free man againÃ¢â¬âa free man with a massive fortune. The Greek Islands were like heaven. The light. The water. The women. There was nothing money couldn't buyÃ¢â¬ânew identities, new passports, new hope. He chose a Greek nameÃ¢â¬âAndros DareiosÃ¢â¬âAndros meaning Ã¢â¬Å"warrior,Ã¢â¬ and Dareios meaning Ã¢â¬Å"wealthy.Ã¢â¬ The dark nights in prison had frightened him, and Andros vowed never to go back. He shaved off his shaggy hair and shunned the drug world entirely. He began life anewÃ¢â¬âexploring never- before-imagined sensual pleasures. The serenity of sailing alone on the ink-blue Aegean Sea became his new heroin trance; the sensuality of sucking moist arni souvlakia right off the skewer became his new Ecstasy; and the rush of cliff diving into the foam-filled ravines of Mykonos became his new cocaine. I am reborn. Andros bought a sprawling villa on the island of Syros and settled in among the bella gente in the exclusive town of Possidonia. This new world was a community not only of wealth, but of culture and physical perfection. His neighbors took great pride in their bodies and minds, and it was contagious. The newcomer suddenly found himself jogging on the beach, tanning his pale body, and reading books. Andros read Homer's Odyssey, captivated by the images of powerful bronze men doing battle on these islands. The next day, he began lifting weights, and was amazed to see how quickly his chest and arms grew larger. Gradually, he began to feel women's eyes on him, and the admiration was intoxicating. He longed to grow stronger still. And he did. With the help of aggressive cycles of steroids intermixed with black-market growth hormones and endless hours of weight lifting, Andros transformed himself into something he had never imagined he could beÃ¢â¬âa perfect male specimen. He grew in bot h height and musculature, developing flawless pectorals and massive, sinewy legs, which he kept perfectly tanned. Everyone was looking now. As Andros had been warned, the heavy steroids and hormones changed not only his body, but also his voice box, giving him an eerie, breathy whisper, which made him feel more mysterious. The soft, enigmatic voice, combined with his new body, his wealth, and his refusal to speak about his mysterious past, served as catnip for the women who met him. They gave themselves willingly, and he satisfied them allÃ¢â¬âfrom fashion models visiting his island on photo shoots, to nubile American college girls on vacation, to the lonely wives of his neighbors, to the occasional young man. They could not get enough. I am a masterpiece. As the years passed, however, Andros's sexual adventures began to lose their thrill. As did everything. The island's sumptuous cuisine lost its taste, books no longer held his interest, and even the dazzling sunsets from his villa looked dull. How could this be? He was only in his midtwenties, and yet he felt old. What more is there to life? He had sculpted his body into a masterpiece; he had educated himself and nourished his mind with culture; he had made his home in paradise; and he had the love of anyone he desired. And yet, incredibly, he felt as empty as he had in that Turkish prison. What is it I am missing? The answer had come to him several months later. Andros was sitting alone in his villa, absently surfing channels in the middle of the night, when he stumbled across a program about the secrets of Freemasonry. The show was poorly done, posing more questions than answers, and yet he found himself intrigued by the plethora of conspiracy theories surrounding the brotherhood. The narrator described legend after legend. Freemasons and the New World Order . . . The Great Masonic Seal of the United States . . . The P2 Masonic Lodge . . . The Lost Secret of Freemasonry . . . The Masonic Pyramid . . . Andros sat up, startled. Pyramid. The narrator began recounting the story of a mysterious stone pyramid whose encrypted engraving promised to lead to lost wisdom and unfathomable power. The story, though seemingly implausible, sparked in him a distant memory . . . a faint recollection from a much darker time. Andros remembered what Zachary Solomon had heard from his father about a mysterious pyramid. Could it be? Andros strained to recall the details. When the show ended, he stepped out onto the balcony, letting the cool air clear his mind. He remembered more now, and as it all came back, he began to sense there might be some truth to this legend after all. And if so, then Zachary SolomonÃ¢â¬âalthough long deadÃ¢â¬âstill had something to offer. What do I have to lose? Three weeks later, his timing carefully planned, Andros stood in the frigid cold outside the conservatory of the Solomons' Potomac estate. Through the glass, he could see Peter Solomon chatting and laughing with his sister, Katherine. It looks like they've had no trouble forgetting Zachary, he thought. Before he pulled the ski mask over his face, Andros took a hit of cocaine, his first in ages. He felt the familiar rush of fearlessness. He pulled out a handgun, used an old key to unlock the door, and stepped inside. Ã¢â¬Å"Hello, Solomons.Ã¢â¬ Unfortunately, the night had not gone as Andros had planned. Rather than obtaining the pyramid for which he had come, he found himself riddled with bird shot and fleeing across the snow- covered lawn toward the dense woods. To his surprise, behind him, Peter Solomon was giving chase, pistol glinting in his hand. Andros dashed into the woods, running down a trail along the edge of a deep ravine. Far below, the sounds of a waterfall echoed up through the crisp winter air. He passed a stand of oak trees and rounded a corner to his left. Seconds later, he was skidding to a stop on the icy path, narrowly escaping death. My God! Only feet in front of him, the path ended, plunging straight down into an icy river far below. The large boulder at the side of the path had been carved by the unskilled hand of a child: On the far side of the ravine, the path continued on. So where's the bridge?! The cocaine was no longer working. I'm trapped! Panicking now, Andros turned to flee back up the path, but he found himself facing Peter Solomon, who stood breathless before him, pistol in hand. Andros looked at the gun and took a step backward. The drop behind him was at least fifty feet to an ice-covered river. The mist from the waterfall upstream billowed around them, chilling him to the bone. Ã¢â¬Å"Zach's bridge rotted out long ago,Ã¢â¬ Solomon said, panting. Ã¢â¬Å"He was the only one who ever came down this far.Ã¢â¬ Solomon held the gun remarkably steady. Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you kill my son?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He was nothing,Ã¢â¬ Andros replied. Ã¢â¬Å"A drug addict. I did him a favor.Ã¢â¬ Solomon moved closer, gun aimed directly at Andros's chest. Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps I should do you the same favor.Ã¢â¬ His tone was surprisingly fierce. Ã¢â¬Å"You bludgeoned my son to death. How does a man do such a thing?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Men do the unthinkable when pushed to the brink.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You killed my son!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Andros replied, hotly now. Ã¢â¬Å"You killed your son. What kind of man leaves his son in a prison when he has the option to get him out! You killed your son! Not me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You know nothing!Ã¢â¬ Solomon yelled, his voice filled with pain. You're wrong, Andros thought. I know everything. Peter Solomon drew closer, only five yards away now, gun leveled. Andros's chest was burning, and he could tell he was bleeding badly. The warmth ran down over his stomach. He looked over his shoulder at the drop. Impossible. He turned back to Solomon. Ã¢â¬Å"I know more about you than you think,Ã¢â¬ he whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"I know you are not the kind of man who kills in cold blood.Ã¢â¬ Solomon stepped closer, taking dead aim. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm warning you,Ã¢â¬ Andros said, Ã¢â¬Å"if you pull that trigger, I will haunt you forever.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You already will.Ã¢â¬ And with that, Solomon fired. As he raced his black limousine back toward Kalorama Heights, the one who now called himself Mal'akh reflected on the miraculous events that had delivered him from certain death atop that icy ravine. He had been transformed forever. The gunshot had echoed only for an instant, and yet its effects had reverberated across decades. His body, once tanned and perfect, was now marred by scars from that night . . . scars he kept hidden beneath the tattooed symbols of his new identity. I am Mal'akh. This was my destiny all along. He had walked through fire, been reduced to ashes, and then emerged again . . . transformed once more. Tonight would be the final step of his long and magnificent journey.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
In My essay I will discuss stereotyping and different types of stereotyping. I will discuss how in todays society people are stereotyped in different many ways. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, there are stereotypes for almost any groups that individuals belong to. At some point in any personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, they would have experienced stereotyping. For instance, it is often said that all African Americans are good at basketball, males are more aggressive than females, Lawyers are deceitful, and the list goes on. Stereotypes are so wide spread and used so often that they seem to be a natural behaviour for human beings. (Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2008) So, what is stereotyping? Why do we categorize individuals into groups? How do stereotypes form? Are all stereotypes accurate summations of groups? These are some of the questions that are discussed in this essay. The purpose of this essay is to give a clear explanation of stereotyping. There is a discussion of a particular incident of stereotyp ing, and this incident is applied to theories relating to stereotyping. Finally, comments are given on the effectiveness of the theories of stereotyping. Ã¢â¬Å"Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is as prevalent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society as it was 2000 years ago. It is a social attitude that has stood the test of time and received much attention by social psychologists and philosophers alike. Many approaches to, or theories of stereotyping have thus been raised. This essay evaluates the cognitive approach that categorisation is an essential cognitive process that inevitably leads to stereotyping. Hamilton (1979) calls this a Ã¢â¬Ëdepressing dilemmaÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"The Psychology of Stereotyping David J. Schneider p37Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s (1995) definition of stereotyping through prejudice is the Ã¢â¬Ëholding of derogatory social attitudes or cognitive beliefs, the expression of negative affect, or the display of hostile or discriminatory behaviour towards members of a group on account of their membership to that groupÃ¢â¬â¢. This definition implies that stereotyping is primarily a group process, through the individuals psycheÃ¢â¬â¢s within that group. A further idea of stereotyping, defined by Allport (1954) as Ã¢â¬Ëthinking ill of others without warrantÃ¢â¬â¢, is that people Ã¢â¬Ëmake their mind upÃ¢â¬â¢ without any personalÃ experience. This pre judgement about a whole group is then transferred to the stigmatisation of any individuals in that group. It is these ideas that the essay aims to evaluate, through the cognitive process of categorisation and the above definitions that bring about three distinct features of stereotyping, that our cognition can be demonstrated through.Ã¢ â¬ The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field (edited by Maruo F. Guillen, Randall Collins, Paula England p224,225)Ã¢â¬ Media Stereotypes Ã¢â¬Å"Media stereotypes are inevitable, especially in the advertising, entertainment and news industries, which need as wide an audience as possible to quickly understand information. Stereotypes act like codes that give audiences a quick, common understanding of a person or group of peopleÃ¢â¬âusually relating to their class, ethnicity or race, gender, sexual orientation, social role or occupation.Ã¢â¬ Stereotypes are deeply embedded in every society in numerous ways. The dictionary definition of a stereotype is Ã¢â¬Å"one that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type.Ã¢â¬ Stereotyping or Labeling is a technique that Ã¢â¬Å"attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable.Ã¢â¬ These stereotypes become so clichÃ © that they begin to form daily thoughts and views and one is unable to look beyond them. Racial stereotypes specifically function mostly through propaganda of the media, due to the unlikelihood of every man travelling to every country, using the technique of Ã¢â¬ËmisinformationÃ¢â¬â¢ through movies, shows, and news reports. Egyptians have been stereotyped as desert residents for many years regardless of the reality and actual state of Egypt as a country. For instance, the stereotypes pointing that Egyptians are mostly uneducated due to their ignorance of the importance of education is proven false by studies of trustworthy sources. Among those studies, the one conducted by the American university in Cairo , Egypt . Al-Ahram weekly, a credible newspaper known all across the Arab world, has posted in its October issue of 1998 the following: Ã¢â¬Å"According to Sahar El-Tawila, the principal researcher on the team, interviews conducted with girls and boys nationwide show conclusively that work and marriage were rarely stated by boys and girls respectively as reasons for leaving school. These may be options for those who have already left school, but they are not the impetus behind their decision to leaveÃ¢â¬ (Al-Ahram 1998). Ã¢â¬Å"Remembering Cosmopolitan Egypt: Literature, Culture, and Empire By Deborah Starr page 183Ã¢â¬ Stereotypes can have excessive damage and it can have a very negative effect on the person in view or as a whole group. Stereotyping is not just another form of making fun of people, it also encourages rejection and outcast. Stereotyping is not only cruel and harmful to people, it can also have major effects on how a person behaves and acts towards other people. It also makes who ever is stereotyping look like a fool. It also forms barriers in communication and everyday life. Conclusion To conclude, the cognitive approach alone does not give us an understanding of stereotyping. However, it does anchor the fact that through our Ã¢â¬ËnaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ thought processes we do categorise, which leads to stereotyping. It also highlights the importance of the individual and the group. There are, however, problems that have been overlooked by cognitive psychologists which we need to understand, in order to fully understand the Ã¢â¬Ëchanging dynamics and nature of stereotyping in our societyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Howitt, et al., 1989). There is also the need to look further than the causes of stereotyping and into its effects in order to understand the processes of our thought, of stereotyping. Bibliography (Al-Ahram 1998). The Psychology of Stereotyping David J. Schneider Ã¢â¬Å"The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field (edited by Maruo F. Guillen, Randall Collins, Paula England p224,225)Ã¢â¬ Remembering Cosmopolitan Egypt: Literature, Culture, and Empire By Deborah Starr
Thursday, November 7, 2019
buy custom The Financial Arena essay The financial arena is one wide one which has remained to be the most active fraternity over the past. This is because the operations of a country, business organization or simply an individual, say in terms of trade, can be majorly determined by the extent to which these parties manage the financial portions of their existence. At the same time, the concept of credit has equally been a common one in the financial fraternity. Due to the improved and more organized conditions, many business organizations have managed to build a strong base of clientele by giving room for a series of credit services. This has mainly been possible due to improved communication strategies (Max, 156). Financial enhancement through credit facilities has assisted many individuals and this fact can be confirmed from Levines words in the book Not Buying it where she confesses that both of us were not earning much buy we both felt prosperous. Indicating the financial assistance she got from utilizing the credi t services.(Levine, 170) The customers that a company gets to maintain through this approach can therefore be simply referred to as credit customers. In addition to the above statements, it is also a point worth noting that any fraternity has its own set of jargons hence in the financial arena and especially in the concept of credit, there are specific metaphors which have always been used in a bid to enhance communication. These metaphors are usually used to enable the customers a clear understanding of the credit terms as provide by a given company/organization. This work shall therefore involve a discussion of some of the most common metaphors of credit and how the credit customers manage to internalize them. At the same time, the metaphors shall be reviewed in order to establish the most accurate ones as used in this field. To begin with, a metaphor can simply be defined as a figure of speech which involves an implied comparison of two things that despite being unlike have one thing in common. In other words, it can be a statement or a phrase which expresses the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar. (Finlay, 123). This definition can therefore be derived in order to establish how the use of a metaphor can actually fit in a business arena. In the concept of credit, a statement can be used to address an issue that credit customers may not know using a subject that is rather familiar to them. One example of such metaphors is do you use the plastic? in this case, the word plastic, which is a rather familiar one has been used to refer to another word which probably some, if not most, of the customers can be familiar with. In a nut shell, the word plastic in this case has been used to refer to the credit card. The above metaphorical statement is therefore a question that a customer can be asked when the person serving him or her would like to known whether they use the credit card or not. The second example of a credit metaphor is credit lost is a Venice glass broken a client can therefore be informed that if we lose this credit then well have broken a Venice glass. This is a metaphorical statement that emphasizes to the client the need to honor all the agreements and hence ensure that the credit is settled in a timely manner. The third metaphor goes, credit is chastity; both of them cn stand temptation better than suspicion. This is a quote by Josh Billings whose interpretation helps to give the credit customer an idea of what credit terms can be by comparing it to chastity. This implies, if a customer knows what chastity is then they probably will be in a position to understand what credit is based on the above metaphorical comparison. There is need for honesty, wit and professionalism when it comes to the issue of credit finance but some customers end up breaking the rules of chastity as Levine reveals in her book that she was a desultory and uncommitted consumer at her best. She cheated twice and bought new clothes.(Levine, 203) The fourth metaphor goes thus, a credit card is a plastic blood sucker this statement can be used to describe the hazardous nature of working on credit especially if the relevant factors are not considered well enough by the customer. In other words, the credit card can prove to be a sucker of all the customers financial abilities especially if they fail to manage the relevant requirements. The discussion above indicates that the credit card can prove to be detrimental to the user especially when they fail to manage it appropriately. In her book Not Buying It. Levine expresses her feelings concerning the use of this card and actually reveals that it is becoming a bother to her. She says I take out my credit card. Reader, I am fallen (Levine,190) Additionally, the phrase plastic money has also been commonly used to refer to the credit card, other credit metaphors include; in debt up to your eyeballs, Owed and due when the bill comes in, Maxed Out, the good, the bad and the ugly, buy now and pay later and Fantastic plastic just to mention but a few. A good example of the use of the term maxed out as a metaphor can be derived from Levines statements in her book Not Buying it which goes I have maxed out the visa, moved on to the Citibank Debit card and I am tapping the ATM like an Iraqi guerilla pulling crude from the pipeline.(Levine, 230) In the above discussion, we have managed to summarize some of the most commonly used metaphors especially when it comes to credit dealings. As it can be derived from the statements above, it is evidently established that the statements have been used to majorly describe credit and specifically credit cards. Most of the above analogies describe the credit card, for instance a credit customers who gets to interact with the statement never leave home without it will obviously know how important it is to always walk around with the credit card. Taking money on credit and hence using the credit card can also be a fantastic experience which can help credit customers especially in times of emergency. This therefore explains the popularity of the metaphor fantastic plastic used to refer to the vital portion of the credit card in the financial life of a credit customer. At this point, it is important to examine how the credit customers get to internalize these common credit metaphors. From the above statement alone, the word common, can be a helpful one in explaining how the clients absorb the and hence take part in the daily use of the metaphors. In other words, the fact that the metaphors are commonly used among credit individuals goes a long way in helping the credit customers to internalize and subsequently use some of these statements. It is one thing to hear or perhaps read about a given credit metaphor, however, it is another thing to make good use of this newly learned aspect. In line with the old adage which goes practice makes perfect the credit customers can only manage to effectively internalize some of these metaphors if they continuously make use of them especially in their day to day business dealings. For instance, when an individual keeps on interacting with the word plastic money and goes ahead to use it in his daily business dealings especially in the right avenues then he/she will most likely develop a deeper understanding of that particular aspect. The other way of internalizing the credit metaphors is through exposure and information provided by the relevant individuals in the given fields. For instance, a given business organization which specializes in offering credit services to its clients can choose to incorporate a special service in the customer care department which plays the main role of informing the credit customers about the common credit metaphors. (Sullivan, 98). When a credit customer is informed of the commonly used terms especially in the financial arena then they are well placed in a position to understand and hence internalize these jargons. In each of the metaphors which have been described above, it is equally worth to note that there are those which are more accurate than the others. In other words, they are the very metaphors which can be applied by the credit customers and the other involved parties in order to directly address specific situations in their lives. For instance, in the above cases, some statements like buy now and pay later, plastic blood sucker, the good, the bad and the ugly, fantastic plastic and never leave home without it are some of the most accurate metaphors commonly used in the credit finance arena. The metaphors also help to emphasize the importance of the credit card and the need to have it wherever one goes, for instance, in her book, Levine wonders Is it even possible to withdraw from a marketplace? and the obvious answer here would be a yes because once you have the plastic, you kind of have the money (Levine, 150). Each of the statements above, in a direct manner, gets to describe the exact situation a credit customer may find himself in at any one time (Sullivan, 98). For instance, the credit card is so vital to a credit customer that they should never leave home without it. At the same time, the above figures of speech vividly allow the credit customers an easy avenue through which they can understand the terms and regulations common in the credit market. Furthermore, the above selected credit metaphors can be considered accurate by the virtue of the fact that they help to create a common code. This common aspect therefore goes a long way in enhancing communication and understanding not only between the credit card customers and the service providers but also among themselves. In a nut shell, the discussion above has adequately uplifted our understanding of the credit metaphors in addition to some of the commonly used terms when it comes to the concept of credit in the financial arena. Buy custom The Financial Arena essay